Sialk Hills | The first civilization in central part of Iran
Sialk Hill is a large ancient archeological site, which is located in the suburb of Kashan, Isfahan.
Sialk Hill is actually a Ziggurat (a religious place of worship which was created by Elamite civilization) with 3 floors, which is made of clay and pottery.
The history of Sialk Hills
This ancient site belongs to 7000 years ago. Sialk and the entire area around it are thought to have originated as a result of the pristine large water sources nearby that still run today. Cheshmeh-ye-Soleyman (Solomon’s spring) has been bringing water to this area for thousands of years.
Parts of the Sialk Hills
The archeological site of Sialk Hill contains the two northern and southern hills, with a 600 meter distance from each other and two cemeteries. The excavations of this area revealed that there are six main levels each built in an era referring to six different eras, in the two northern and southern hills of Sialk that each has its unique exclusivity.
It is the oldest and deepest layer in Sialk Hills. People of this era had cottages made of straw and branches, covered with mud.
In this era, people drew different shapes on their potteries, such as shepherds, hunters and farmers. They found copper and used it to build little jewels. A strange thing about these people was that they buried their loved lost ones in their own houses.
About 6100 years ago, Sialk people migrated from the northern hill to the southern hill. They also started to use pottery wheels and used human shapes to design their potteries. Jewelry became more modern in this time by using silver as the main material.
In this period, people learnt how to read and write. Cylindrical seals were found in this layer with the drawings of animals and other geometric shapes, which shows the trade and economy in Sialk.
About 3200 years ago, new migrants brought grey pottery to this place and they built a cemetery in the southern side of the city.
During this time, new migrants built another house and cemetery on the remaining time span of the fifth era. They also changed the arcades of the graves to a hill-shaped structure.
Relicts from this ancient civilization
Some human skeleton and ancient containers were found in these sites which are now protected in The National Museum of Iran, Louvre museum and the museum in Fin Garden. Moreover, the discovery of spinning and knitting wheels, show the skill of spinning and knitting industry in thousand years ago. The discovery of melting furnaces on the southern side of this place, shows that Sialk Hills can be considered as one of the most industrialized reagions of its time.
* Written by Arefeh Firouzan.
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