Izadkhast Historical Complex | World’s second largest mud-brick structure
The historical Complex of Izadkhast is located in Abade city, northern part of Fars province. The history of Abade city dates back to Iran’s pre-Islamic time, although the city had its most power and significance during the rule of Karim Khan Zand, of Zandiye dynasty.
The Historical Complex of Izadkhast has attracted the attention of many archeologists with its unique urban design and architecture. Its fire temple, water dam and caravansary are of the best examples remained from Sassanid Empire, that with studying them, noteworthy information of Sassanid urbanization and architecture can be obtained. It should be mentioned that after the Bam Citadel, it is the biggest mud-brick structure in the world.
Izadkhast Historical Complex was inscribed on the UNESCO’s list of World Heritage Sites.
It was built about 22 meters higher than the ground around it. This 5-story structure was made of clay and wood and embraces a small town in itself. The houses inside this castle were built in a staircase form on a slope, in a way that the roof of the lower house is the courtyard of the upper house. This design was used in constructing the Abyaneh Village by Iranian architects.
This castle was built on a sedimentary base for military purposes. Sassanid architects built this castle in order to create a powerful and impenetrable system for its inhabitants. The only entrance way to this castle is through a bridge. In other words, this bridge was the only connection way with the world outside the castle.
This dam was constructed on a river which flow on the south side of the castle. The dam is made of lime stone, 42 meters in length and 15 meters in height and in a carved form. The outer part of the dam is covered by stone and Sarooj (a traditional water-resistance cement in Iran). Today, only the eastern and the southern parts of this dam have remained from the past.
Izadkhast Caravansary can be considered as one of the best architectural examples in the complex. Being built under the command of Shah Abbas Safavi in the 17th century, the eywans, courtyard and the hall in this structure are among its notable characteristics. It was built in an area of 4000 square meters and has 20 rooms. These 6-square meter rooms were rented by the travelers who passed the region.
Standing above the rest of the buildings in Izadkhast Castle, This Sassanid fire-temple is a magnificent structure. It is a beautiful and splendid four-arched fire-temple and Iran’s first fire-temple which changed to mosque in post-Islamic time.
* Written by Arefeh Firouzan.
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|Wikipedia: Click here||Name(s) in Persian:قلعه ایزد خواست|
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